FOAM IS DEFINED AS A COARSE DISPERSION OF GAS IN A LIQUID.
It is created either by condensation or dispersion of a gas in a liquid medium. A pure liquid does not foam. Therefore, foam occurs when surface active contaminants, foaming agents or foam stabilizers are present.
THERE ARE TWO WAYS TO DEFINE THE PHASES OF FOAM.
1. The gas is in the form of separate particles with no continuity, so it is called the “discontinuous phase.” The liquid, which surrounds the bubbles, is called the “continuous phase.”
2. The gas dispersed in the liquid may be referred to as the “disperse” or: internal” phase. The liquid is then referred to as the “external” phase.
FOR FOAMING TO OCCUR, 3 BUILDING BLOCKS ARE NEEDED
1. Liquid (oil, water, or organic chemicals)
2. A gas (air)
3. A contaminant (iron sulfide, sand, silt, asphaltenes, etc.)
FOAM WASTES MONEY!
Foam reduces the capacity of treating equipment and can make the goal of achieving oil difficult attain. Uncontrolled foam can lead to production tank overflow which translate into lost revenues and extra expenditures for clean up operations. By maintaining control over foam, dehydration will function more efficiently. Production losses are reduced and the volume of product transported to refineries is increased.
The use of chemical antifoams is the most popular method for foam control. Among small producers, White’s antifoam products may be batched into the production tank. On large producing leases, continuous injection of antifoam at the proper rate will keep foam under control.
WHITE RESOURCES ANTIFOAM CHEMICALS WILL ORIENT AT THE SURFACE AND BREAK THE FILM THAT STABILIZES THE FOAM.
The unusually low surface tension of antifoams produces high surface activity and great spreading power resulting in unique performance by these materials in many applications. To be effective, White’s antifoam must meet the following criteria.
1. The solubility of the foam control products in a foaming medium must be low. If the chemicals are soluble, the following tendency of the fluid may increase.
2. The antifoam must be readily dispersible in the foaming system. By being highly dispersible, the antifoam will be more effective in controlling the foaming problem.
3. The antifoam must not react with the foaming liquid. The antifoam must have the ability of the surface orientation to ensure total distribution into the gas-liquid interface where it can do its job of breaking liquid membranes which entrap gas.
The persistence or continued activity of antifoam depends on one or more of the following factors:
1. PERCENT SOLIDS – Some components which make up an antifoam product have a tendency to adhere to the solids in the system. This results in a loss of activity because the antifoam does not remain at the liquid surface where it functions best. The more solids present in a system, the greater and quicker the activity loss becomes.
2. DIGESTION – Most White antifoams are partially biodegradable; therefore, in water systems with bacteria, a loss of activity will be seen over a period of time due to microbial action.
3. EVAPORATION – In very hot systems, antifoams with volatile components may lose some activity as these components evaporate.
4. REACTIVITY/SOLUBILITY – The antifoam may decrease when components of the antifoam react with system contaminants.
WHITE RESOURCES, INC.
P.O. Box 17875 | Natchez, MS 39122
Natchez, MS : 601.597.3707 | LaFayette, LA : 337.278.1764 | email@example.com
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